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Performance and application of PE pipe and PVC pipe

1. The relationship between toughness and flame retardancy of PEOrdinary PE toughness is very good, better than PVC pipe. But the concept that everybody comes out is to be based on common PE tubing character.For coal mine pipe sources, flame retardant and antistatic.For antistatic PVC or PE, the insulation is good, the surface resistivity of up to 1012-15 Ω, need antistatic agent to reduce to 1 * 106 Ω surface resistance, the amount and type of adding antistatic agent is not in the difference. However, PVC itself is flame retardant, it can easily meet the flame retardant standards set by mt-181, and PE is flammable material, need to add a lot of flame retardant agent to meet the flame retardant standards of mt-181, its impact resistance will decline lower than PVC pipe. Therefore, at present, some mine PE pipe can not meet the flame retardant standard, is this reason, no or less with flame retardant, reduce the manufacturing cost, but also avoid the tube too brittle phenomenon.2. PricePE raw material manufacturing, in the world at present only one channel, is the use of petroleum in the mouth of light oil such as naphtha cracking, produce ethylene, ethylene polymerization, produce different brands, different specifications of polyethylene. Therefore, its price is closely related to the international crude oil price.To make the coal mine use PE pipe, need to add antistatic masterbatch and flame retardant masterbatch, masterbatch, is to add a certain amount of antistatic agent in PE raw material or flame retardant, or both, mixed granulation, again after masterbatch and at present very little pipe factory can produce masterbatch, because masterbatch production technical, many of them are patent or proprietary technology, are generally pipe factory purchased from masterbatch manufacturer or dealer. The price of masterbatch is PE price adds 5000 yuan of the left and right side again commonly, for example PE14500 yuan/catty, masterbatch is about 19500 yuan/catty, the addition of masterbatch sees masterbatch in effective component, how many and performance are concerned, it is 30-45 or so commonly. Now suppose the raw material price of PE100 is 15,000 yuan/kg, the masterbatch is 20,000 yuan/kg, and the number of masterbatches added is 30. Then in 1000 kg of PE, 300 kg of masterbatch is added, and the total price is 15,000 +20000 30% = 21000 yuan. The total weight is 1300kg, which is equivalent to 16,153 yuan per ton, plus the processing fee of 2,000 yuan per ton (electricity fee). The cost of each ton of pipe is 18,153 yuan per ton. Not counting the production plant staff wages, equipment depreciation, marketing costs and other costs.At present, the sales price of some PE pipes is very low, lower than the price of the above raw materials and electricity, the only possibility is to use the low price of non-pe100 raw materials.The price of PVC is much lower than PE. For example, at present, PE is about 14,000 yuan per ton, while PVC is only about 6,500 yuan. Of course, PVC is still added with expensive stabilizers and toughening agents, but the overall price of raw materials is much lower than PE.

SPC floor main performance requirements

SPC floor main performance requirements1. Low shrinkage, warping and good toughness.2. Make sure that it is not easy to deform under various environments and has good locking tension and a certain peeling force between the substrate and the film. The performance mainly depends on the material type component processing technology equipment ability to decide.SPC processing requirements1. The stability of continuous production is very important because of the large extrusion volume of SPC floor production line and the need for online laminating.2. As the SPC floor is highly filled, the screw wears seriously and the screw value is relatively high, so the impact of the screw life on the total cost must be considered.3. The floor is relatively thin with small thickness tolerance requirements and fast extrusion speed, so it requires good material dispersion, plasticization performance and fluidity.

PVC pipe drainage pipe advantages

1. Excellent surface hardness and tensile strength of pipes, high pipe safety coefficient.2. Good aging resistance, normal service life of more than 50 years.3. The pipeline has excellent corrosion resistance to inorganic acid, alkali and salt, and is suitable for industrial sewage discharge and transportation.4. Small friction coefficient of pipeline, smooth water flow, not easy to block, less maintenance work.5. The material has high oxygen index and self-extinguishing property.6. Pipeline small linear expansion coefficient of 0.07 mm / ℃, affected by the temperature deformation is small. The thermal conductivity and elastic modulus are small, and the freezing resistance is better than cast iron drainage pipes.7. The connection of pipes and fittings can be made by bonding, with simple construction method, convenient operation and high installation efficiency.8. With good water tightness: the installation of pvc-u pipe has good water tightness no matter it is connected by adhesive or rubber ring.

PVC Pipe Drain Pipe

1. Excellent surface hardness and tensile strength of pipes, high pipe safety coefficient.2. Good aging resistance, normal service life of more than 50 years.3. The pipeline has excellent corrosion resistance to inorganic acid, alkali and salt, and is suitable for industrial sewage discharge and transportation.4. Small friction coefficient of pipeline, smooth water flow, not easy to block, less maintenance work.5. The material has high oxygen index and self-extinguishing property.6. Pipeline small linear expansion coefficient of 0.07 mm / ℃, affected by the temperature deformation is small. The thermal conductivity and elastic modulus are small, and the freezing resistance is better than cast iron drainage pipes.7. The connection of pipes and fittings can be made by bonding, with simple construction method, convenient operation and high installation efficiency.8. With good water tightness: the installation of pvc-u pipe has good water tightness no matter it is connected by adhesive or rubber ring.

What are the ways to improve the heat resistance of PVC plastics?

1. PVC copolymerPVC(vinyl chloride) and other monomer copolymer resin composition if there are polar or large groups of components, the copolymer thermal deformation temperature increases accordingly, heat resistance is better than PVC, heat resistant products were made. PVC softening temperature is 78 ℃, and vinyl chloride vinylidene chloride and vinyl chloride copolymer of methyl methacrylate, vinyl chloride softening temperature of a propylene eyes were 100 ~ 130, 85, 140 ~ 150 ℃.2. Chlorination of PVCChlorinated polyvinyl chloride is made from PVC resin chlorinated, its chlorine content is 62%~68%. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) can be used continuously under 100 ℃ (higher than PVC 20 ~ 35 ℃), the highest temperature can reach 100 ~ 105 ℃. And the chemical stability, fire resistance, cold resistance are better than PVC. But the chlorination equipment antisepsis request is stricter. Resin is not easy to process and its application and development are restricted by its poor impact toughness.3. PVC cross-linkingCrosslinked PVC can be prepared by radiation crosslinking and chemical crosslinking. The crosslinked PVC products have higher mechanical strength, better dimensional stability, heat resistance, deformation, wear resistance and chemical resistance than ordinary PVC products. Radiation crosslinking wire can be continuous use under 100 ~ 110 ℃.4. PVC is blended with other polymersPVC is mixed with other polymers in a certain proportion, and the performance (full compatibility) of the blend is improved compared with PVC. Because of the compatibility of the two kinds of polymer mixing, can reach the molecular level of mutual melting, forming a single phase structure, so that the properties of the blend can be supplemented and strengthened, such as PVC/PS, PVC/PE, PVC/CPVC.5. Add heat-resistant modifierHeat resistant modifier is a kind of polymer with high heat resistance developed and produced in order to improve the heat resistance of PVC.6. Add inorganic filler to PVCAdding a certain amount of filler, can improve the heat resistance of PVC. Commonly used fillers are: heavy calcium carbonate, light calcium carbonate, precipitated calcium carbonate, calcined pottery, barium sulfate, red mud, titanium powder and so on.7. Add glass fiber into PVCAdding 20% ~ 30% glass fiber, PVC in without (or less) under the condition of plasticizer, its heat resistance can be increased to more than 100 ℃. Especially long fiber reinforced PVC, its thermal deformation temperature increased more significantly.

PVC floor cleaning and maintenance knowledge collection

I. cleaning of PVC floor1.Dry mop: remove dust and dirt from the floor. Use dry or wet yarn, microfiber or other dry mops available.2.Vacuum cleaning: use a vacuum cleaner to remove dust and loose dirt from the floor. In restricted areas, this cleaning method can be used instead of a mop.3.Slightly wet mop: the mop should be slightly wet with water or detergent first. The method is to squeeze the excess water out of the mop with a dedicated cleaning winch. In addition, the mop can be sprayed with water or detergent. Be careful that there is no water gathering on the floor. The floor must be completely dry within 15-20 seconds of the end of the wipe.4.Remove the stain: spray the diluted neutral cleaner directly on the stain, then use white or red nylon cleaning pad to clean the stain until it is removed, and finally wipe clean with water.II. Maintenance of PVC floor1. Maintenance after floor laying is completed/before use(1) first remove the dust and sundries on the floor surface.(2) add 3M red sharpener or similar products to the floor cleaner at low speed for cleaning (dilute with strong general cleaner 1:20 into the water and add to the floor polisher), remove the protective wax, grease, dust and other dirt on the floor surface, and drain the sewage with a water absorber.(3) wash and dry with clean water.(4) apply 1-2 layers of high-strength facial wax as needed.2. Daily maintenance(1) pushing or vacuuming. (drag the dust agent on the ground to dry and push the dust.)(2) wet towing. (dilute the polish with a floor cleaner with 1:20 water and use a semi-wet mop to mop the floor.) If necessary, you can use the floor cleaner to cooperate with wash&shine at low speed.3. Regular cleaning and maintenance(1) pushing or vacuuming.(2) the floor cleaning glazing agent shall be diluted with 1:20 water, and the floor will be cleaned or polished with red abrasive disc added by high-speed polishing machine.(3) upper 1-2 layers of high-strength facial wax.(4) as required, it can cooperate with high-speed polishing machine to add white polishing pad for polishing processing.

Solution to Carburization of Plastics

Machine washAfter stopping for a long time, heat is turned on again, a lot of big and small black spots are easy to appear on plastic products, can not meet the quality requirements of products, these black spots are the carbon compounds after thermal degradation of residual plastics in the machine. The cleaning machine usually adopts the method of continuous extrusion with plastic, removing the plastic melt with black spots, and the cleaning machine takes up to 3-5 hours. If the original ultra high molecular weight plastic is carbonized, and the production of primary color products, it will greatly increase the difficulty of the washing machine, which will make the washing machine longer and cost more.Carbide within quick cleaning machine, need to use some comparison of material hard plastic material or its back and white mineral oil cleaning, temperature appropriate heightening 10 ~ 15 ℃. At this point, to consider small extruder on the plastic plasticizing capacity. For large and medium-sized extruders which can plasticize ultra-high molecular weight plastics, they can be cleaned with ultra-high molecular weight plastics or their recycling and white mineral oil. As the hardness of ultra-high molecular weight plastics is better, and when the temperature is higher, the cleaning object will be softened and become easy to fall off, which is beneficial for the carbide to be carried out by the plastic melt. During the cleaning process, the speed of the extruder switches repeatedly between low speed and high speed. If the motor load remains, the extruder can be stopped and restarted repeatedly during operation to further improve the cleaning effect. When the carbides (black spots) are significantly reduced in the melt, the normal plastic should be replaced and cleaned until it is clean and gradually adjusted to the appropriate temperature, then normal production can be achieved.Remove the cleaningIt is easier to clean the carbides in the extruder by internal cleaning, and difficult to clean the carbides in the storage head of the hollow blow molding equipment. Because the internal structure of the extruder is simple, the internal structure of the hollow blow molding equipment is complex, and the equipment will be more difficult to clean due to the long time of use. In this case, disassembly cleaning is imperative. Turn off the power when the machine head is hot enough and remove all assembly parts. Clean plastic melt in the head with copper sheet. Remove the charred carbide with a metal brush. Although the disassembly cleaning effect is very good, but it takes a long time, more laborious, generally not easy to use this disassembly cleaning method.

Do you know all six types of plastic molds?

Plastic mould is a tool for plastic processing industry and plastic forming machine. According to the different molding methods, can be divided into different mold types.1. Injection moldIt mainly is the most widely used in the production of thermoplastic plastic products of a forming mold, injection mold corresponding processing equipment is injection molding machine, plastic first heated melting within the bottom heating cylinder injection molding machine, and then in the injection molding machine screw or plunger, driven by the injection molding machine nozzle and mould gating system into the mold cavity, cooling hardening molding, plastic mold release products.Its structure usually consists of forming parts, pouring system, guiding parts, pushing mechanism, temperature-regulating system, exhaust system, supporting parts and so on. Injection molding processing methods are usually only applicable to hot plastic products production, with the production of injection molding plastic products is very broad, from daily necessities of life to all kinds of complex electrical appliances, auto parts and so on are made of plastic injection molding, it is the most widely used in the production of plastic products of a processing method.2. Blow molding mouldUsed for molding plastic hollow container class products (such as beverage bottle, cosmetic products all kinds of packaging containers) of a mold, blow moulding main form according to the process principle of extrusion blow molding hollow molding, injection molding, main form according to the process principle of extrusion blow molding hollow molding, injection blow molding hollow molding, injection stretch blow molding hollow molding (commonly known as note blow), multi-story hollow blow molding, sheet molding hollow molding, etc.The equipment corresponding to blow molding of hollow products is usually called plastic blow molding machine. Blow molding is only applicable to the production of hot plastic products. Blow molding mold structure is relatively simple, the materials used are more carbon than manufacturing.3. Extrusion dieUsed for forming a class of continuous shaped plastic products mold, also called extrusion head, is widely used in pipe, bar, monofilament, sheet, film, wire and cable coating layer, the processed profiles etc.Corresponding production equipment is plastic extruder, its principle is solid plastic in heating and extruder screw rotation pressure under the condition of melting and plasticizing, by the mouth of the specific shape mould, made of a section with the mouth mould for plastic products of the same shape. Its manufacturing materials mainly include carbon structural steel, alloy tools, etc., some extrusion dies will be inlaid with diamond and other wear-resistant materials on wear-resistant parts.The extrusion process is usually only applicable to the production of thermoplastic products, which is structurally different from injection moulds and pressure moulds.4. Blister mouldWith plastic sheet, a sheet as raw material to shape some simple a mould of plastic products, its principle is to use the bloom method or compressed air vacuum molding method makes on the die or punch with plastic board, sheet, under the condition of the heating softening deformation and posted in the mold cavity of the required molding products, mainly used in some daily necessities, food, toys, packaging products production.Because the pressure of the plastic mold is low when forming, the mould material is mostly made of cast aluminum or non-metal material with simple structure.5. Compression moldIncluding compression molding and injection molding two types of structural mold. They are a kind of mould mainly used for forming thermosetting plastic, and the corresponding equipment is pressure forming machine.Compression molding method based on the characteristics of plastic mold is heated to molding temperature (generally in the 103 ° 108 °), and then measuring good molding powder into the mold cavity and loading chamber, the closed mold, plastic in high fever, high pressure under the action of a softening viscous flow, after a certain period of time the curing finalize the design, become the required products shape.Injection molding and compression molding different is no single loading chamber, forming mold before closing, plastic in the feeding room, preheating is viscous flow state in the stress under the action of adjustment into the mold cavity, hardening of the shape.The die - casting mould is mainly composed of cavity, feeding chamber, guide mechanism, ejection part and heating system. Injection moulds are widely used to encapsulate electrical components. The material used in the manufacture of the die is basically the same as the injection mould.6. High foaming polystyrene molding mouldIt is a kind of mould for forming all kinds of foamed plastic packaging materials of various required shapes from the raw material of hair polystyrene (bead material composed of polystyrene and foaming agent).Its principle is sending polystyrene into the steam forming reaction in the mold, including simple manual operation mold and the hydraulic press for through foam mold two types, are mainly used for production of industrial products packaging products. The mould is made of cast aluminum, stainless steel, bronze, etc.

Performance characterization of plastic toughness

1, the more rigid the material is, the less likely it is to have deformation, and the more resilient it is, the more likely it is to undergo deformation.    Toughness and rigidity are the attributes that reflect the degree of difficulty in the deformation of an object. The more rigid the material is, the less likely it is to undergo deformation, and the more resilient it is, the more likely it is to undergo deformation.    Generally, the rigidity, the hardness, the tensile strength, the tensile modulus (young's modulus), the bending strength and the bending modulus are all larger. On the contrary, the greater the toughness, the greater the breaking elongation and impact strength. The impact strength is shown as the strength of the spline or the unit bearing the impact, usually the energy absorbed by the spline before the rupture. The impact strength varies with the shape, test method and sample condition, so it cannot be classified as the basic property of the material.2. The results obtained by different impact test methods cannot be compared.    There are many methods of impact test, according to the test temperature: there are three kinds of temperature shock, low temperature impact and high temperature impact. According to the stress state of the sample, it can be divided into bending impact - simple beam and cantilever beam impact, tensile impact, torsion impact and shear shock. According to the energy and the number of shocks, it can be divided into a large energy and a small energy multiple impact test. Different impact test methods can be selected for different materials or different purposes, and different results can be obtained. These results cannot be compared.

How to prevent PVC soles from turning yellow in summer?

    PVC because of the high cost performance, is widely used in the material, but the white sole often can appear the phenomenon of pale yellow, especially the summer high temperature weather change color, to prevent the sole color yellow, should first clear the reason of the color yellow, then suit the remedy to the case.    One, precipitate out. Because the shoes with a large amount of plasticizer (generally in the 60 ~ 100 PHR), and liquid plasticizers (especially chlorinated paraffin, liquid paraffin, white oil, etc.) and the compatibility of PVC is not very good, when the temperature rises, it is easy to precipitate to the surface of material, cause the sole yellowed.    Solution: use the plasticizer with high molecular weight and PVC compatibility, such as polyester plasticizer; Use high order calcium powder to increase dispersibility and oil absorption value; Reduce the use of stearic acid soap and stearic acid lubricants, and change the use of polyol ester lubricant; Use part 2 and 3 tree powder to increase the oil absorption value; ACR resin is added to improve the plasticizing uniformity and reduce the surface density.    Secondly, lead pollution. Summer high temperature, the use of lead salt stabilizer, powder for three salt two salt, etc., especially under the condition of high temperature, with sulfur lead pollution will occur (such as packing carton) or can be called sulfur pollution, yellow color.    Solution: change the use of PVC shoe special lead salt stabilizer or replace the sole calcium zinc stabilizer; Reducing contact sulfur; Reduce storage temperature, etc.    Third, lack of stability. The lack of stability of PVC will result in the process of turning from white to yellow and brown until the conversation becomes dark. Stability is divided into light stability, thermal stability and oxygen stability.    Solution: change to high quality stabilizer or increase the use of stabilizer; An appropriate amount of uv absorbent; Add antioxidants and so on.

What are the common problems in the production of PVC foamed plate

1, the stability is insufficient, it will affect the whole plate surface, the surface of the plate is yellow, and the foamed sheet is brittle. The solution is to reduce the processing temperature. If there is no improvement, the prescription can be adjusted, and the amount of stabilizers and lubricants can be increased properly. It can be changed one by one, so it is easy to find out the problem quickly and solve the problem at the fastest speed.2, the melt strength deficiency will lead to foam sheet bubble, blister long slit.The most direct way to judge whether or not the melt strength is enough is to press the fingers on the middle rolls after pressing the three rolls, which can feel the elasticity when the melt is strong and press. It is difficult to start if pressed, indicating that the strength of the melt is poor. Because the screw structure and cooling way are quite different, it is difficult to determine whether the temperature is reasonable. Generally speaking, in the allowable load of the extruder, the temperature in zone 3 to 5 is low. In order to obtain the foaming even products in the foamed sheet, it is necessary to ensure the good melting strength of the PVC material.So the quality and model of the foaming agent are very important, of course, the dosage of yellow white hair agent should also be well matched.3, the lubricants are divided into external lubricants and internal lubricants.The outer slide to release, is good for the smooth surface of the plate, the outer slide is too small, the extruder 5 zone temperature is not easy to control, easy to heat up, it will lead to the confluence of the core temperature is high, the middle plate out on yellow, bullae, and other issues, the plate surface is not smooth; the outer slide, precipitation become serious, precipitation structure and plate surface in the mold performance smooth, also showed some individual phenomenon on the surface of back and forth in the irregular movement.The internal sliding is favorable for plasticization and melt flow. The inner slide is not enough to control the thickness of the plate. It is shown that the thickness of the plate is thick and thin on both sides, and the inner sliding is much, which is easy to appear the phenomenon of high temperature of the confluent core.4, the poor dispersion will bring the surface of the plate unsmooth.The problem of process temperature control: the four problems mentioned above belong to the fundamental problem, the foundation and the deep problem. Compared to the above four problems, the process temperature control is much more intuitive, is a surface problem, but the temperature control is not good, it will induce the emergence of fundamental problems. To improve the processing temperature, the material will reduce the stability time, stability problem; lubrication balance of the original will be broken, the general performance is lack of lubrication, especially at the late stage of lubrication, need to improve the amount of external lubrication; temperature increase will lead to lower melt strength, foam sheet bubble bubble increases, reducing the number of. Sheet brittle fracture; the temperature decreased with increasing melt strength will reduce melt viscosity, viscosity reducing shear dispersing ability, strong ability of screw is not dispersed, sometimes uneven dispersion.

Performance and use of common plastics

PE is polyethylene plastic, its chemical properties are stable. It usually produces food bags and various containers, and is resistant to acid, alkali and salt solution. But it is not suitable to wipe or soak with strong alkaline detergent.PP is a polypropylene plastic, non-toxic, tasteless, can be 100 degrees in the boiling water soak deformation, no damage, common acid, alkali and organic solvent on it is almost no effect. For more food.PS is polystyrene plastic. It is easy to stain and has good transparency. It is used for making lampshade, toothbrush handle, toys and electrical components. It is resistant to acid and alkali corrosion, but it is easily dissolved in chloroform, two vinyl chloride, banana water and other organic solvents.PVC is polyvinyl chloride plastic, bright color, corrosion-resistant and durable. Due to the addition of some plasticizers, anti-aging agents and other toxic auxiliary materials in the manufacturing process, its products generally do not store food and drugs.ABS is made from acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene. Its color is striking, heat-resistant and strong. The outer surface can be plated with chromium, nickel and other metal thin films. It can make keyboard, button, knife rack, TV case, umbrella handle and so on.PA nylon plastics, its characteristic tenacity, strong wear resistance, commonly used in the production of comb, toothbrush, rope bag, hook, a fan, fruit bags. No toxicity, but not long-term contact with acid and alkali.

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